At Sydney Airport, for instance, there are a number of strategies that have been established to ensure that the perennial noise problem is effectively addressed. Alternatively, its Federal Government introduced one of the mitigation policies that proposed the concept of sharing the noise. In this case, it was suggested to establish a flight path plan that aims at ensuring that the flight paths are above non-residential areas and above the waters as much as possible. Nevertheless, since this principle is not sensible or rather practical enough, it was proposed to distribute and share the noise equally over all the suburbs that surround the airport. In essence, a system of rotating runaway operating modes ensures that suburbs are protected with respites or breaks during daytime from the noise made by aircrafts.
Another important noise mitigation strategy is monitoring. In this case, In British Airways, two independent bodies have been established to manage and monitor the flight path plan. Additionally, the appointed bodies have representations from the state, federal and local government, the aviation industry, and the community. In reality, the British Airways possess one of the most extensive Noise and Flight Path Monitoring Techniques that determines monitors and evaluates the direction of the flight coupled with the noise levels the aircrafts create in the areas that they fly. Moreover, a dedicated telephone service has been made available to address and record community concerns. In addition, this strategy has also been employed in the Sydney Airport.
Insulation is another mitigation strategy that can be used to alleviate the noise problem in the Airport. The Sydney Airport Noise Amelioration Program is universally acknowledged as one of the most comprehensive insulation programs that have ever been employed in the global world. It offers to insulate homes and public buildings such as pre-schools, schools, healthcare facilities, and homes that are found within the aircraft noise boundaries established by the Federal Government. Furthermore, the insulation program promotes the purchase of the most seriously affected properties around the globe. For instance, the Commonwealth Government has invested approximately $390 million dollars on the simulation program and the protection of the areas surrounding airports since 2002.
Prohibition of older aircrafts from using the airport is another important noise mitigation strategy employed in so many airports in the world. In Virgin Airways, for instance, there is virtually no noise, as older aircrafts or otherwise acknowledged in the chapter 3 aircraft that are allowed into the airport. In other words, a complete ban on the older aircrafts has come into force in early 2009.Addititionnaly, implementing a curfew is also another way of reducing the level of noise pollution around the airport. For example, in Sydney, a jet curfew exists between 11 pm and 6 am. If any jet is found violating this strategy, a fine of approximately $ 550,000 is imposed on the person in charge of the aircraft that failed to obey the aforementioned strategy.
Good planning is also a crucial strategy in mitigating the noise issue. The British Airways, the local council surrounding the airport are provided with the necessary information to permit them to incorporate the noise produced by aircrafts into the land use planning. Moreover, Australian Standard also covers land use planning in areas that are situated around the airport.
Quota count is a noise mitigation system that is employed by London Heathrow, Stansted, and Gatwick airports to reduce the level of noise produced by aircrafts that operate at night. Additionally, from the year 1962 right up to 1993, the operations that were being conducted at Heathrow were controlled by limiting the number of aircrafts that were allowed to operate during the night period. As a result, a new quota system was established in accordance with the aircraft noise certification data. In this situation, each aircraft is given a quota count depending on the level and the amount of noise that it generated based on the controlled certification conditions. In other words, the quieter an aircraft was, the smaller was the value of QC attached to it. As a result, the aircrafts were classified separately depending on their take-off and landing periods.
In the LarGuardia airport, members of the Queens Congressional Delegation have established a legal framework that would mandate aircrafts with quieter engines. In this way, the Silent Skies Act postulated in the year 1999 required that all the transportation departments conform to the standard for stage 4 aircraft in a sense that all aircrafts operating in LarGuardia should comply with the Stage 4 noise levels before the end of 2012. Additionally, in 1999, Stage 3 of Aircraft Noise compliance mandated that all the aircraft engines complied with the Stage 3 noise level by 1999. However, some aircrafts have desperately tried to evade the stage 3 requirements by fitting hush kits in their aircrafts. Hush kits force the exhaust pipe of the engine with the help of a nozzle that penetrates into an ejector shroud and that reduces the velocity of the exhaust pipe, hence, making it theoretically quieter. Nonetheless, the practical truth is the fact that the hush kits make the aircraft heavier and incur performance-related penalties, while they increase fuel consumption by approximately 50% and significantly worsen the noise standards as compared to the current technology aircraft. Therefore, to reduce the issue of noise pollution in areas surrounding the airport, the government of the host country should prohibit the employment of the hush kits on the aircrafts and in the process in general. This will ensure that all aircrafts that are in operation are basing upon the guidance of Stage 3 noise compliance. As a consequence, the legislation congress should introduce a law in parliament requiring all aircrafts to become compliant with the Stage 4 within the next 10 years.
ATC or Air Traffic Control techniques and procedures are also involved in curbing the level of noise within the airport surrounding community by directing the traffic flow of aircrafts away from the densely populated territories. Owing to this process, the number of flights operating within a particular airport over various communities is reasonably distributed. Alternatively, as much as the areas situated close to the airport are highly populated, it is acknowledged that there should be some other areas that are unpopulated. In this case, industrial, water, and park areas including also wet lands present a good opportunity for redirecting aircrafts to these areas.
On the one hand, ground-run restrictions are other influential techniques that are employed in mitigating noise in airport areas. The port authority of Heathrow has established the aircraft ground run-up restriction technique at each of their subsequent airports to help control the run-up noise implications on the neighboring areas. On the other hand, the authority must be able to approve aircraft orientations and run-up areas. In Heathrow airport, for instance, during nighttime hours, no more than one engine is allowed to run-up for more than a minute at full power and no air carrier is allowed to perform more than one run-up at a time.
In New Jersey and New York, the airports authority has implemented a school soundproofing program. In this case, approximately 78 learning institutions that were severely impacted by the noise as they operate in the adjoining areas have been chosen for the program. Additionally, since its inception in the year 1998, a total investment authorization put into this plan has reached $226 million. Besides, this program has already been implemented in 34 schools and the level of noise measurements there before and after the set-up has indicated that there has been approximately 50% reduction in noise intrusion levels in schools.
In conclusion, although it is not under the jurisdiction of the city to regulate or rather control the noise emanation from the airport, the noise problem experienced by the citizens in connection with the airport has been one of the most serious complaints. That indicates how important it is for the local authorities to introduce measures that will tackle the situation, so that the noise will be mitigated to levels that are not harmful to the people and environment. Consequently, one of the primary goals is to make the public aware of the consequences of noise pollution and possible ways to reduce it. Hence, the port authority should familiarize the population with some of the major noise performance indicators, annual noise mitigation goals, and the annual report about the progress of the noise mitigation strategies. Therefore, to improve its service delivery, the airport authority should ensure that the issue of noise pollution is properly controlled by means of the most effective noise mitigation strategies.
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